The Ming Dynasty fell around 1644 to the Qing Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 (with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917).
During its reign, the Qing Dynasty became highly integrated with Chinese culture.
The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle from 1603 until 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration in the late Edo period (often called the Late Tokugawa shogunate).
In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) with a largely bloodless coup.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
The early modern period also included the rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism.
The European colonization of the Americas, Asia, and Africa occurred during the 15th to 19th centuries, and spread Christianity around the world.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c.