Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security.
Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes.
Police forces are often defined as being separate from military or other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing.
Another organisation, the Constabulary (French: Connétablie), was under the command of the Constable of France.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.
In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security.
Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves.
The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and even the Praetorian Guard if necessary.